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Clearly Erroneous Rule

Rule 11.270. Clearly Erroneous Executions

  1. Definition. For purposes of this IEX Rule 11.270, the terms of a transaction executed on the Exchange are “clearly erroneous” when there is an obvious error in any term, such as price, number of shares or other unit of trading, or identification of the security. A transaction made in clearly erroneous error and canceled by both parties or determined by the Exchange to be clearly erroneous will be removed from the Consolidated Tape.
  2. Request and Timing of Review. A Member that receives an execution on an order that was submitted erroneously to the Exchange for its own or customer account may request that the Exchange review the transaction under this IEX Rule 11.270. An Officer of the Exchange or such other employee designee of the Exchange (“Official”) shall review the transaction under dispute and determine whether it is clearly erroneous, with a view toward maintaining a fair and orderly market and the protection of investors and the public interest. Such request for review shall be made in writing via e-mail or other electronic means specified from time to time by the Exchange in a circular distributed to Members.
    1. Requests for Review. Requests for review must be received by the Exchange within thirty (30) minutes of execution time and shall include information concerning the time of the transaction(s), security symbol(s), number of shares, price(s), side (bought or sold), and factual basis for believing that the trade is clearly erroneous. Upon receipt of a timely filed request that satisfies the guidelines set forth in this IEX Rule 11.270, the counterparty to the trade, if any, shall be notified by the Exchange as soon as practicable, but generally within thirty (30) minutes. An Official may request additional supporting written information to aid in the resolution of the matter. If requested, each party to the transaction shall provide any supporting written information as may be reasonably requested by the Official to aid resolution of the matter within thirty (30) minutes of the Official’s request. Either party to the disputed trade may request the supporting written information provided by the other party on the matter.
    2. Routed Executions. Away trading centers will generally have an additional thirty (30) minutes from receipt of their participant’s timely filing, but no longer than sixty (60) minutes from the time of the execution at issue, to file with the Exchange for review of transactions routed to the Exchange from that away trading center and executed on the Exchange.
  3. Clearly Erroneous Review.
    1. Review of transactions occurring during Regular Market Hours. If the execution time of the transaction(s) under review is during Regular Market Hours, the transaction will not be reviewable as clearly erroneous unless the transaction:
      1. is in an NMS Stock that is not subject to the Plan to Address Extraordinary Market Volatility Pursuant to Rule 608 of Regulation NMS under the Act (the “Limit Up-Limit Down Plan” or “LULD Plan”). In such case, the Numerical Guidelines set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this Rule will be applicable to such NMS Stock;
      2. was executed at a time when Price Bands under the LULD Plan were not available, or is the result of an Exchange technology or systems issue that results in the transaction occurring outside of the applicable LULD Price Bands pursuant to paragraph (g), or is executed after the primary listing market for the security declares a regulatory trading halt, suspension, or pause pursuant to paragraph (i). A transaction subject to review pursuant to this paragraph shall be found to be clearly erroneous if the price of the transaction to buy (sell) that is the subject of the complaint is greater than (less than) the Reference Price, described in paragraph (d) below, by an amount that equals or exceeds the applicable Percentage Parameter defined in Appendix A to the LULD Plan (“Percentage Parameters”); or
      3. involved, in the case of (1) a corporate action or new issue or (2) a security that enters a Trading Pause pursuant to the LULD Plan and resumes trading without an auction, a Reference Price that is determined to be erroneous by an Officer of the Exchange because it clearly deviated from the theoretical value of the security. In such circumstances, the Exchange may use a different Reference Price pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this Rule. A transaction subject to review pursuant to this paragraph shall be found to be clearly erroneous if the price of the transaction to buy (sell) that is the subject of the complaint is greater than (less than) the new Reference Price, described in paragraph (d)(2) below, by an amount that equals or exceeds the Numerical Guidelines or Percentage Parameters, as applicable depending on whether the security is subject to the LULD Plan.
    2. Review of transactions occurring during the Pre-Market or Post-Market Sessions, or eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A).
      1. Subject to the additional factors described in paragraph (c)(2)(C) below, a transaction executed during the Pre-Market or Post-Market Session, or eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A), shall be found to be clearly erroneous if the price of the transaction to buy (sell) that is the subject of the complaint is greater than (less than) the Reference Price by an amount that equals or exceeds the Numerical Guidelines set forth below.
        Reference Price, Circumstance or Product Regular Market Hours Numerical Guidelines for transactions eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A) (Subject transaction’s % difference from the Reference Price) Pre-Market and Post-Market Session Numerical Guidelines (Subject transaction’s % difference from the Reference Price)
        Greater than $0.00 up to and including $25.00 10% 20%
        Greater than $25.00 up to and including $50.00 5% 10%
        Greater than $50.00 3% 6%
        Multi-Stock Event – Filings involving five or more, but less than twenty, securities whose executions occurred within a period of five minutes or less 10% 10%
        Multi-Stock Event – Filings involving twenty or more securities whose executions occurred within a period of five minutes or less 30%, subject to the terms of paragraph (c)(2)(B) below 30%, subject to the terms of paragraph (c)(2)(B) below
        Leveraged ETF/ETN N/A Regular Market Hours Numerical Guidelines multiplied by the leverage multiplier (i.e., 2x)
      2. Multi-Stock Events Involving Twenty or More Securities. Multi- Stock Events involving twenty or more securities may be reviewable as clearly erroneous if they occur during the Pre-Market or Post Market Session or are eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A). During Multi-Stock Events, the number of affected transactions may be such that immediate finality is necessary to maintain a fair and orderly market and to protect investors and the public interest. In such circumstances, the Exchange may use a Reference Price other than consolidated last sale. To ensure consistent application across trading centers when this paragraph is invoked, the Exchange will promptly coordinate with the away trading centers to determine the appropriate review period, which may be greater than the period of five minutes or less that triggered application of this paragraph, as well as select one or more specific points in time prior to the transactions in question and use transaction prices at or immediately prior to the one or more specific points in time selected as the Reference Price. The Exchange will nullify as clearly erroneous all transactions that are at prices equal to or greater than 30% away from the Reference Price in each affected security during the review period selected by the Exchange and other markets consistent with this paragraph.
      3. Additional FactorsExcept in the context of a Multi-Stock Event involving five or more securities, an Official may also consider additional factors to determine whether an execution is clearly erroneous, provided the execution occurred during the Pre-Market or Post Market Session or are eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A). Such additional factors include but are not limited to, system malfunctions or disruptions, volume and volatility for the security, derivative securities products that correspond to greater than 100% in the direction of a tracking index, news released for the security, whether trading in the security was recently halted/resumed, whether the security is an initial public offering, whether the security was subject to a stock-split, reorganization, or other corporate action, overall market conditions, Pre-Market Session or Post-Market Session executions, validity of the consolidated tapes trades and quotes, consideration of primary market indications, and executions inconsistent with the trading pattern in the stock. Each additional factor shall be considered with a view toward maintaining a fair and orderly market and the protection of investors and the public interest.
      4. Outlier Transactions. In the case of an Outlier Transaction during the Pre-Market or Post Market Session or that is eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A), an Official may, in his or her sole discretion, and on a case-by-case basis, consider requests received pursuant to paragraph (b) of this IEX Rule 11.270 after thirty (30) minutes, but not longer than sixty (60) minutes after the transaction in question, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding such request.
        1. An “Outlier Transaction” means a transaction where the execution price of the security is greater than three times the current Numerical Guidelines set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this IEX Rule 11.270.
        2. If the execution price of the security in question is not within the Outlier Transaction parameters set forth in paragraph (c)(2)(D)(i) of this IEX Rule but breaches the 52-week high or 52-week low, the Exchange may consider Additional Factors as outlined in paragraph (c)(2)(C), in determining if the transaction qualifies for further review or if the Exchange shall decline to act.
  4. Reference Price. The Reference Price referred to in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) above will be equal to the consolidated last sale immediately prior to the execution(s) under review except for:
    1. in the case of Multi-Stock Events involving twenty or more securities, as described in paragraph (c)(2)(B) above;
    2. in the case of Multi-Stock Events involving twenty or more securities, as described in paragraph (c)(2)(B) above;
    3. in other circumstances, such as, for example, relevant news impacting a security or securities, periods of extreme market volatility, sustained illiquidity, or widespread system issues, where use of a different Reference Price is necessary for the maintenance of a fair and orderly market and the protection of investors and the public interest, provided that such circumstances occurred during the Pre-Market or Post Market Session or are eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(A).
  5. Review Procedures.
    1. Determination by Official. Unless both parties to the disputed transaction agree to withdraw the initial request for review, the transaction under dispute shall be reviewed, and a determination shall be rendered by the Official. If the Official determines that the transaction is not clearly erroneous, the Official shall decline to take any action in connection with the completed trade. In the event that the Official determines that the transaction in dispute is clearly erroneous, the Official shall declare the transaction null and void. A determination shall be made generally within thirty (30) minutes of receipt of the complaint, but in no case later than the start of the Regular Market Session on the following day. The parties shall be promptly notified of the determination.
    2. Appeals. If a Member affected by a determination made under this IEX Rule 11.270 so requests within the time permitted below, the Clearly Erroneous Execution Panel (“CEE Panel”) will review decisions made by the Official under this IEX Rule, including whether a clearly erroneous execution occurred and whether the correct determination was made; provided however that the CEE Panel will not review decisions made by an Officer under paragraph (g) of this IEX Rule 11.270 regarding transactions that occurred outside of the applicable Price Bands disseminated pursuant to the LULD Plan, and further provided that with respect to rulings made by the Exchange in conjunction with one or more away trading centers, the number of affected transactions is similarly such that immediate finality is necessary to maintain a fair and orderly market and to protect investors and the public interest and, hence, are also non- appealable.
      1. The CEE Panel will be comprised of the CRO, or a designee of the CRO, and representatives from two (2) Members.
      2. The Exchange shall designate at least ten (10) representatives of Members to be called upon to serve on the CEE Panel as needed. In no case shall a CEE Panel include a person affiliated with a party to the trade in question. To the extent reasonably possible, the Exchange shall call upon the designated representatives to participate on a CEE Panel on an equally frequent basis.
      3. A request for review on appeal must be made in writing via e-mail or other electronic means specified from time to time by the Exchange in a circular distributed to Members within thirty (30) minutes after the party making the appeal is given notification of the initial determination being appealed. The CEE Panel shall review the facts and render a decision as soon as practicable, but generally on the same trading day as the execution(s) under review. On requests for appeal received between 3:00 p.m. Eastern Time and the close of trading in the Post-Market Session, a decision will be rendered as soon as practicable, but in no case later than the trading day following the date of the execution under review.
      4. The CEE Panel may overturn or modify an action taken by the Official under this IEX Rule 11.270. All determinations by the CEE Panel shall constitute final action by the Exchange on the matter at issue.
      5. If the CEE Panel votes to uphold the decision made pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) above, the Exchange will assess a $500.00 fee against the Member(s) who initiated the request for appeal. In addition, in instances where the Exchange, on behalf of a Member, requests a determination by an away trading center that a transaction is clearly erroneous, the Exchange will pass any resulting charges through to the relevant Member.
      6. Any determination by an Officer or by the CEE Panel shall be rendered without prejudice as to the rights of the parties to the transaction to submit their dispute to arbitration.
  6. Officer Acting on Own Motion. An Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee, acting on his or her own motion, may review potentially erroneous transactions occurring during the Pre-Market or Post Market Session or that are eligible for review pursuant to paragraph (c)(1), and declare trades null and void or shall decline to take any action in connection with the completed trade(s). In such events, the Officer of the Exchange or such other senior level employee designee will rely on the provisions of paragraph (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this IEX Rule. Absent extraordinary circumstances, any such action of the Officer of the Exchange or other senior level employee designee shall be taken in a timely fashion, generally within thirty (30) minutes of the detection of the erroneous transaction. When extraordinary circumstances exist, any such action of the Officer of the Exchange or other senior level employee designee must be taken by no later than the start of Regular Market Hours on the trading day following the date of execution(s) under review. When such action is taken independently, each party involved in the transaction shall be notified as soon as practicable by the Exchange, and the party aggrieved by the action may appeal such action in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (e)(2) above.
  7. Transactions Occurring Outside of LULD Plan Price Bands. If as a result of an Exchange technology or systems issue any transaction occurs outside of the applicable Price Bands disseminated pursuant to the LULD Plan, an Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee, acting on his or her own motion or at the request of a third party, shall review and declare any such trades null and void. Absent extraordinary circumstances, any such action of the Officer of the Exchange or other senior level employee designee shall be taken in a timely fashion, generally within thirty (30) minutes of the detection of the erroneous transaction. When extraordinary circumstances exist, any such action of the Officer of the Exchange or other senior level employee designee must be taken by no later than the start of Regular Market Hours on the trading day following the date on which the execution(s) under review occurred. Each Member involved in the transaction shall be notified as soon as practicable by the Exchange, and the party aggrieved by the action may appeal such action in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (e)(2) above. In the event that a single plan processor experiences a technology or systems issue that prevents the dissemination of Price Bands, the Exchange will make the determination of whether to nullify transactions based on paragraph (c)(1)(B) above.
  8. Multi-Day Event. A series of transactions in a particular security on one or more trading days may be viewed as one event if all such transactions were effected based on the same fundamentally incorrect or grossly misinterpreted issuance information resulting in a severe valuation error for all such transactions (the “Event”). An Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee, acting on his or her own motion, shall take action to declare all transactions that occurred during the Event null and void not later than the start of trading on the day following the last transaction in the Event. If trading in the security is halted before the valuation error is corrected, an Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee shall take action to declare all transactions that occurred during the Event null and void prior to the resumption of trading. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no action can be taken pursuant to this paragraph with respect to any transactions that have reached settlement date or that result from an initial public offering of a security. To the extent transactions related to an Event occur on one or more away trading centers, the Exchange will promptly coordinate with such away trading center(s) to ensure consistent treatment of the transactions related to the Event, if practicable. Any action taken in connection with this paragraph will be taken without regard to the Percentage Parameters or Numerical Guidelines set forth in this IEX Rule. Each Member involved in a transaction subject to this paragraph shall be notified as soon as practicable by the Exchange, and the party aggrieved by the action may appeal such action in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (e)(2) above.
  9. Trading Halts. In the event of any disruption or malfunction in the operation of the electronic communications and trading facilities of the Exchange, an away trading center or responsible single plan processor in connection with the transmittal or receipt of a regulatory trading halt, suspension or pause, an Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee, acting on his or her own motion, shall nullify any transaction in a security that occurs after the primary listing market for such security declares a regulatory trading halt, suspension or pause with respect to such security and before such regulatory trading halt, suspension or pause with respect to such security has officially ended according to the primary listing market. In addition, in the event a regulatory trading halt, suspension or pause is declared, then prematurely lifted in error and is then re-instituted, an Officer of the Exchange or senior level employee designee shall nullify transactions that occur before the official, final end of the halt, suspension or pause according to the primary listing market. Any action taken in connection with this paragraph shall be taken in a timely fashion, generally within thirty (30) minutes of the detection of the erroneous transaction and in no circumstances later than the start of Regular Market Hours on the trading day following the date of execution(s) under review. Any action taken in connection with this paragraph will be taken without regard to the Percentage Parameters or Numerical Guidelines set forth in this IEX Rule. Each Member involved in a transaction subject to this paragraph shall be notified as soon as practicable by the Exchange, and the party aggrieved by the action may appeal such action in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (e)(2) above.

(Amended by SR-IEX-2016-06 eff. August 5, 2016; amended by SR-IEX-2018-05 eff. March 6, 2018; amended by SR-IEX-2022-07 eff. September 21, 2022.)

More Information

Please contact IEX Market Operations to request clearly erroneous review of a transaction under IEX Rule 11.270 or with any questions: